Certified Ethical Hacker v8


In Trojan terminology, what is required to create the executable file chess.exe as shown below?

A. Mixer

B. Converter

C. Wrapper

D. Zipper

Answer: C


Syslog is a standard for logging program messages. It allows separation of the software that generates messages from the system that stores them and the software that reports and analyzes them. It also provides devices, which would otherwise be unable to communicate a means to notify administrators of problems or performance.

What default port Syslog daemon listens on?

A. 242

B. 312

C. 416

D. 514

Answer: D


This attack uses social engineering techniques to trick users into accessing a fake Web site and divulging personal information. Attackers send a legitimate-looking e-mail asking users to update their information on the company's Web site, but the URLs in the e-mail actually point to a false Web site.

A. Wiresharp attack

B. Switch and bait attack

C. Phishing attack

D. Man-in-the-Middle attack

Answer: C


Which of the following statements would NOT be a proper definition for a Trojan Horse?

A. An authorized program that has been designed to capture keyboard keystroke while the user is unaware of such activity being performed

B. An unauthorized program contained within a legitimate program. This unauthorized program performs functions unknown (and probably unwanted) by the user

C. A legitimate program that has been altered by the placement of unauthorized code within it; this code performs functions unknown (and probably unwanted) by the user

D. Any program that appears to perform a desirable and necessary function but that (because of unauthorized code within it that is unknown to the user) performs functions unknown (and definitely unwanted) by the user

Answer: A


What is the correct command to run Netcat on a server using port 56 that spawns command shell when connected?

A. nc -port 56 -s cmd.exe

B. nc -p 56 -p -e shell.exe

C. nc -r 56 -c cmd.exe

D. nc -L 56 -t -e cmd.exe

Answer: D


SNMP is a connectionless protocol that uses UDP instead of TCP packets (True or False)

A. true

B. false

Answer: A


TCP/IP Session Hijacking is carried out in which OSI layer?

A. Datalink layer

B. Transport layer

C. Network layer

D. Physical layer

Answer: B


In which part of OSI layer, ARP Poisoning occurs?

A. Transport Layer

B. Datalink Layer

C. Physical Layer

D. Application layer

Answer: B


You want to hide a secret.txt document inside c:\windows\system32\tcpip.dll kernel library using ADS streams. How will you accomplish this?

A. copy secret.txt c:\windows\system32\tcpip.dll kernel>secret.txt

B. copy secret.txt c:\windows\system32\tcpip.dll:secret.txt

C. copy secret.txt c:\windows\system32\tcpip.dll |secret.txt

D. copy secret.txt >< c:\windows\system32\tcpip.dll kernel secret.txt

Answer: B


You just purchased the latest DELL computer, which comes pre-installed with Windows 7, McAfee antivirus software and a host of other applications. You want to connect Ethernet wire to your cable modem and start using the computer immediately. Windows is dangerously insecure when unpacked from the box, and there are a few things that you must do before you use it.

A. New installation of Windows should be patched by installing the latest service packs and hotfixes

B. Key applications such as Adobe Acrobat, Macromedia Flash, Java, Winzip etc., must have the latest security patches installed

C. Install a personal firewall and lock down unused ports from connecting to your computer

D. Install the latest signatures for Antivirus software

E. Configure "Windows Update" to automatic

F. Create a non-admin user with a complex password and logon to this account

G. You can start using your computer as vendors such as DELL, HP and IBM would have already installed the latest service packs.

Answer: A, C, D, E, F


In the context of Trojans, what is the definition of a Wrapper?

A. An encryption tool to protect the Trojan

B. A tool used to bind the Trojan with a legitimate file

C. A tool used to calculate bandwidth and CPU cycles wasted by the Trojan

D. A tool used to encapsulate packets within a new header and footer

Answer: B


Wrapper does not change header or footer of any packets but it mix between legitimate file and Trojan file.


Your computer is infected by E-mail tracking and spying Trojan. This Trojan infects the computer with a single file - emos.sys

Which step would you perform to detect this type of Trojan?

A. Scan for suspicious startup programs using msconfig

B. Scan for suspicious network activities using Wireshark

C. Scan for suspicious device drivers in c:\windows\system32\drivers

D. Scan for suspicious open ports using netstat

Answer: C


Which type of hacker represents the highest risk to your network?

A. black hat hackers

B. grey hat hackers

C. disgruntled employees

D. script kiddies

Answer: C


Shayla is an IT security consultant, specializing in social engineering and external penetration tests. Shayla has been hired on by Treks Avionics, a subcontractor for the Department of Defense. Shayla has been given authority to perform any and all tests necessary to audit the company's network security.

No employees for the company, other than the IT director, know about Shayla's work she will be doing. Shayla's first step is to obtain a list of employees through company website contact pages. Then she befriends a female employee of the company through an online chat website. After meeting with the female employee numerous times, Shayla is able to gain her trust and they become friends. One day, Shayla steals the employee's access badge and uses it to gain unauthorized access to the Treks Avionics offices.

What type of insider threat would Shayla be considered?

A. She would be considered an Insider Affiliate

B. Because she does not have any legal access herself, Shayla would be considered an Outside Affiliate

C. Shayla is an Insider Associate since she has befriended an actual employee

D. Since Shayla obtained access with a legitimate company badge; she would be considered a Pure Insider

Answer: A


What port number is used by Kerberos protocol?

A. 88

B. 44

C. 487

D. 419

Answer: A


What does FIN in TCP flag define?

A. Used to abort a TCP connection abruptly

B. Used to close a TCP connection

C. Used to acknowledge receipt of a previous packet or transmission

D. Used to indicate the beginning of a TCP connection

Answer: B


Annie has just succeeded in stealing a secure cookie via a XSS attack. She is able to replay the cookie even while the session is invalid on the server. Why do you think this is possible?

A. It works because encryption is performed at the application layer (single encryption key)

B. The scenario is invalid as a secure cookie cannot be replayed

C. It works because encryption is performed at the network layer (layer 1 encryption)

D. Any cookie can be replayed irrespective of the session status

Answer: A


This attack technique is used when a Web application is vulnerable to an SQL Injection but the results of the Injection are not visible to the attacker.

A. Unique SQL Injection

B. Blind SQL Injection

C. Generic SQL Injection

D. Double SQL Injection

Answer: B


A common technique for luring e-mail users into opening virus-launching attachments is to send messages that would appear to be relevant or important to many of their potential recipients. One way of accomplishing this feat is to make the virus-carrying messages appear to come from some type of business entity retailing sites, UPS, FEDEX, CITIBANK or a major provider of a common service.

Here is a fraudulent e-mail claiming to be from FedEx regarding a package that could not be delivered. This mail asks the receiver to open an attachment in order to obtain the FEDEX tracking number for picking up the package. The attachment contained in this type of e-mail activates a virus.

Vendors send e-mails like this to their customers advising them not to open any files attached with the mail, as they do not include attachments.

Fraudulent e-mail and legit e-mail that arrives in your inbox contain the fedex.com as the sender of the mail.

How do you ensure if the e-mail is authentic and sent from fedex.com?

A. Verify the digital signature attached with the mail, the fake mail will not have Digital ID at all

B. Check the Sender ID against the National Spam Database (NSD)

C. Fake mail will have spelling/grammatical errors

D. Fake mail uses extensive images, animation and flash content

Answer: A


What file system vulnerability does the following command take advantage of?

type c:\anyfile.exe > c:\winnt\system32\calc.exe:anyfile.exe


B. Backdoor access



Answer: D


You are the Security Administrator of Xtrinity, Inc. You write security policies and conduct assessments to protect the company's network. During one of your periodic checks to see how well policy is being observed by the employees, you discover an employee has attached cell phone 3G modem to his telephone line and workstation. He has used this cell phone 3G modem to dial in to his workstation, thereby bypassing your firewall. A security breach has occurred as a direct result of this activity. The employee explains that he used the modem because he had to download software for a department project. How would you resolve this situation?

A. Reconfigure the firewall

B. Enforce the corporate security policy

C. Install a network-based IDS

D. Conduct a needs analysis

Answer: B


In what stage of Virus life does a stealth virus gets activated with the user performing certain actions such as running an infected program?

A. Design

B. Elimination

C. Incorporation

D. Replication

E. Launch

F. Detection

Answer: E


What is a sniffing performed on a switched network called?

A. Spoofed sniffing

B. Passive sniffing

C. Direct sniffing

D. Active sniffing

Answer: D


A rootkit is a collection of tools (programs) that enable administrator-level access to a computer. This program hides itself deep into an operating system for malicious activity and is extremely difficult to detect. The malicious software operates in a stealth fashion by hiding its files, processes and registry keys and may be used to create a hidden directory or folder designed to keep out of view from a user's operating system and security software.

What privilege level does a rootkit require to infect successfully on a Victim's machine?

A. User level privileges

B. Ring 3 Privileges

C. System level privileges

D. Kernel level privileges

Answer: D


Which Steganography technique uses Whitespace to hide secret messages?

A. snow

B. beetle

C. magnet

D. cat

Answer: A


Cyber Criminals have long employed the tactic of masking their true identity. In IP spoofing, an attacker gains unauthorized access to a computer or a network by making it appear that a malicious message has come from a trusted machine, by "spoofing" the IP address of that machine.

How would you detect IP spoofing?

A. Check the IPID of the spoofed packet and compare it with TLC checksum. If the numbers match then it is spoofed packet

B. Probe a SYN Scan on the claimed host and look for a response SYN/FIN packet, if the connection completes then it is a spoofed packet

C. Turn on 'Enable Spoofed IP Detection' in Wireshark, you will see a flag tick if the packet is spoofed

D. Sending a packet to the claimed host will result in a reply. If the TTL in the reply is not the same as the packet being checked then it is a spoofed packet

Answer: D


David is a security administrator working in Boston. David has been asked by the office's manager to block all POP3 traffic at the firewall because he believes employees are spending too much time reading personal email. How can David block POP3 at the firewall?

A. David can block port 125 at the firewall.

B. David can block all EHLO requests that originate from inside the office.

C. David can stop POP3 traffic by blocking all HELO requests that originate from inside the office.

D. David can block port 110 to block all POP3 traffic.

Answer: D


You want to capture Facebook website traffic in Wireshark. What display filter should you use that shows all TCP packets that contain the word 'facebook'?

A. display==facebook

B. traffic.content==facebook

C. tcp contains facebook

D. list.display.facebook

Answer: C


XSS attacks occur on Web pages that do not perform appropriate bounds checking on data entered by users. Characters like < > that mark the beginning/end of a tag should be converted into HTML entities.

What is the correct code when converted to html entities?

A. Option A

B. Option B

C. Option C

D. Option D

Answer: D


Most cases of insider abuse can be traced to individuals who are introverted, incapable of dealing with stress or conflict, and frustrated with their job, office politics, and lack of respect or promotion. Disgruntled employees may pass company secrets and intellectual property to competitors for monitory benefits.

Here are some of the symptoms of a disgruntled employee:

a. Frequently leaves work early, arrive late or call in sick

b. Spends time surfing the Internet or on the phone

c. Responds in a confrontational, angry, or overly aggressive way to simple requests or comments

d. Always negative; finds fault with everything

These disgruntled employees are the biggest threat to enterprise security. How do you deal with these threats? (Select 2 answers)

A. Limit access to the applications they can run on their desktop computers and enforce strict work hour rules

B. By implementing Virtualization technology from the desktop to the data centre, organizations can isolate different environments with varying levels of access and security to various employees

C. Organizations must ensure that their corporate data is centrally managed and delivered to users just and when needed

D. Limit Internet access, e-mail communications, access to social networking sites and job hunting portals

Answer: B, C


Fake Anti-Virus, is one of the most frequently encountered and persistent threats on the web. This malware uses social engineering to lure users into infected websites with a technique called Search Engine Optimization.

Once the Fake AV is downloaded into the user's computer, the software will scare them into believing their system is infected with threats that do not really exist, and then push users to purchase services to clean up the non-existent threats.

The Fake AntiVirus will continue to send these annoying and intrusive alerts until a payment is made.

What is the risk of installing Fake AntiVirus?

A. Victim's Operating System versions, services running and applications installed will be published on Blogs and Forums

B. Victim's personally identifiable information such as billing address and credit card details, may be extracted and exploited by the attacker

C. Once infected, the computer will be unable to boot and the Trojan will attempt to format the hard disk

D. Denial of Service attack will be launched against the infected computer crashing other machines on the connected network

Answer: B


How would you describe an attack where an attacker attempts to deliver the payload over multiple packets over long periods of time with the purpose of defeating simple pattern matching in IDS systems without session reconstruction? A characteristic of this attack would be a continuous stream of small packets.

A. Session Hijacking

B. Session Stealing

C. Session Splicing

D. Session Fragmentation

Answer: C


Jake works as a system administrator at Acme Corp. Jason, an accountant of the firm befriends him at the canteen and tags along with him on the pretext of appraising him about potential tax benefits. Jason waits for Jake to swipe his access card and follows him through the open door into the secure systems area. How would you describe Jason's behavior within a security context?

A. Smooth Talking

B. Swipe Gating

C. Tailgating

D. Trailing

Answer: C


While performing a ping sweep of a local subnet you receive an ICMP reply of Code 3/Type 13 for all the pings you have sent out. What is the most likely cause of this?

A. The firewall is dropping the packets

B. An in-line IDS is dropping the packets

C. A router is blocking ICMP

D. The host does not respond to ICMP packets

Answer: C


Consider the following code:



If an attacker can trick a victim user to click a link like this, and the Web application does not validate input, then the victim's browser will pop up an alert showing the users current set of cookies. An attacker can do much more damage, including stealing passwords, resetting your home page, or redirecting the user to another Web site.

What is the countermeasure against XSS scripting?

A. Create an IP access list and restrict connections based on port number

B. Replace "<" and ">" characters with "& l t;" and "& g t;" using server scripts

C. Disable Javascript in IE and Firefox browsers

D. Connect to the server using HTTPS protocol instead of HTTP

Answer: B


Samuel is the network administrator of DataX Communications, Inc. He is trying to configure his firewall to block password brute force attempts on his network. He enables blocking the intruder's IP address for a period of 24 hours' time after more than three unsuccessful attempts. He is confident that this rule will secure his network from hackers on the Internet.

But he still receives hundreds of thousands brute-force attempts generated from various IP addresses around the world. After some investigation he realizes that the intruders are using a proxy somewhere else on the Internet which has been scripted to enable the random usage of various proxies on each request so as not to get caught by the firewall rule.

Later he adds another rule to his firewall and enables small sleep on the password attempt so that if the password is incorrect, it would take 45 seconds to return to the user to begin another attempt. Since an intruder may use multiple machines to brute force the password, he also throttles the number of connections that will be prepared to accept from a particular IP address. This action will slow the intruder's attempts.

Samuel wants to completely block hackers brute force attempts on his network.

What are the alternatives to defending against possible brute-force password attacks on his site?

A. Enforce a password policy and use account lockouts after three wrong logon attempts even though this might lock out legit users

B. Enable the IDS to monitor the intrusion attempts and alert you by e-mail about the IP address of the intruder so that you can block them at the

Firewall manually

C. Enforce complex password policy on your network so that passwords are more difficult to brute force

D. You cannot completely block the intruders attempt if they constantly switch proxies

Answer: D


What type of Trojan is this?

A. RAT Trojan

B. E-Mail Trojan

C. Defacement Trojan

D. Destructing Trojan

E. Denial of Service Trojan

Answer: C


Maintaining a secure Web server requires constant effort, resources, and vigilance from an organization. Securely administering a Web server on a daily basis is an essential aspect of Web server security.

Maintaining the security of a Web server will usually involve the following steps:

1. Configuring, protecting, and analyzing log files

2. Backing up critical information frequently

3. Maintaining a protected authoritative copy of the organization's Web content

4. Establishing and following procedures for recovering from compromise

5. Testing and applying patches in a timely manner

6. Testing security periodically.

In which step would you engage a forensic investigator?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

E. 5

F. 6

Answer: D


In Buffer Overflow exploit, which of the following registers gets overwritten with return address of the exploit code?





Answer: D


Web servers often contain directories that do not need to be indexed. You create a text file with search engine indexing restrictions and place it on the root directory of the Web Server.

User-agent: *

Disallow: /images/

Disallow: /banners/

Disallow: /Forms/

Disallow: /Dictionary/

Disallow: /_borders/

Disallow: /_fpclass/

Disallow: /_overlay/

Disallow: /_private/

Disallow: /_themes/

What is the name of this file?

A. robots.txt

B. search.txt

C. blocklist.txt

D. spf.txt

Answer: A


An attacker has successfully compromised a remote computer. Which of the following comes as one of the last steps that should be taken to ensure that the compromise cannot be traced back to the source of the problem?

A. Install patches

B. Setup a backdoor

C. Install a zombie for DDOS

D. Cover your tracks

Answer: D

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